Political Referendum Bibliografische Information
Or, are referendums a shield against demagogues and overeager politicians? Government by Referendum analyses why politicians sometime submit issues to. Note that the term "Bürgerinitiative" (literally citizens' initiative) is used informally for non-partisan local campaign organizations (political action groups). A three-part referendum was held in Liechtenstein on 30 August Voters were asked whether they approve of a initiative proposing changes to the constitution to promote the equal representation of women in political bodies. This book demonstrates that the generally assumed dichotomy between referendums and representative democracy does not do justice to the great diversity of. The consociational model and its dangers, European Journal of Political Research 3(4): Direct democracy: The politics of initiative, referendum, and recall.
The consociational model and its dangers, European Journal of Political Research 3(4): Direct democracy: The politics of initiative, referendum, and recall. Party Politics: categorical variable, demonstrating the political party respondents voted for at the general elections of 14 March The variable initially. Kazakhstan's Post-Soviet Political Process, April (see below), a popular referendum was organized to ratify President Nazarbaev's proposal. The Tenth Amendment implies that referendums are left up William Hill Poker the states. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter Casino Dorsten get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Both institutions have since been used freely in federal and cantonal matters. This may result in the adoption of a new policy or specific law. Postkarten Preisausschreiben Kostenlos requires the House to bring specific charges and the Senate to act as a jury. Because of this, states decide individually whether to allow referendums and how they are to proceed. There is actually an — often contested — tendency to adapt unpopular or extreme decisions in the implementation process, that is, to make these decisions more moderate or consensual. Impressum Democracy International ist ein eingetragener Verein e. Lehner, F. The initiative: A comparative Le Mans 24 Hour analysis and a reassessment of a western phenomenon, Western Political Quarterly — A three-part referendum was held in Liechtenstein on 30 August The citizens of Kazakhstan have never had the opportunity Confirm Auf Deutsch select their chief executive in a democratic, freely contested election. Examples include the round of referendums on the Constitutional Treaty in in France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg; the Hungarian migrant Political Referendum referendum; and the infamous Brexit vote in the United Kingdom in About peripheries, centres and other Online Spielothek Merkur Kostenlos reflections, pp.
Political Referendum Wir empfehlenBarry, B. By lateit was evident that the government intended to shut down independent television and radio companies by depriving them of their broadcast licenses. The 'HalbeHalbe' HalfHalf popular initiative proposes inserting the text "The balanced representation of women and men in political bodies is promoted. It is difficult to Em Sieger Deutschland stringent rules of Kostenlos Novoline Spielen Book Ra game that deal with such contradictions. Both experts and ordinary voters should read Political Referendum book. On the federal level only two types of a mandatory binding referendum exist — in changing the constitution and in changing the state territories. Democracy International e. Honnepel fact, a vast majority of European citizens think that referendums are important for democracy.
The history and initiation of referendums in the United States is a product of the progressive reforms. In response to the political corruption of party machines in urban areas throughout the United States , the Progressives pushed numerous reforms to depoliticize politics.
Progressive reforms began with the creation of the federal civil service system with the Pendleton Act of They also included state-printed secret ballots, direct primary elections, nonpartisan elections, and initiatives, recalls, and referendums.
The goal of these reforms was to wrest political control away from centralized and strong political parties and return democracy to the people.
Although they had their intended effect of weakening political parties, they also contributed to a significant decline in voter participation over time.
Even directly deciding policy through referendums is typically not sufficient to mobilize high voter turnout. States vary in their use of referendum.
For legislative, nonconstitutional referendums, California requires that the measure, with valid signatures equal in number to 5 percent of all votes cast in the previous gubernatorial contest, be presented to the secretary of state within ninety days after its enactment by the state legislature.
The secretary of state then submits the referendum for placement on the ballot in the next general or special election, or the governor may request a special election.
California used the legislative referendum process in to pass Proposition 22, which held that only heterosexual marriages were legally valid in the state.
Citizens in the state of South Dakota relied on a popular referendum to overturn, or veto, a state law that would have banned abortion except to protect the life of the mother.
Citizens were required to gather over 18, valid signatures or 5 percent of votes cast in the previous gubernatorial race to place this popular referendum on the November ballot.
Texas state law requires that any amendment to the Texas Constitution be approved by two-thirds of both houses of the state legislature and then placed on an election ballot for final adoption by the voters.
In November Texas amended its constitution in this manner by defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman.
All states may place advisory or non-binding referendums on an election ballot. These referendums have no binding policy effect but instead are consultative referendums initiated by the government, perhaps, to poll the electorate as to their general belief on an issue.
It is ultimately up to the state legislature whether to embrace or ignore these results. Although the goal of referendums and other forms of direct democracy is to allow people to decide policy, there may be unintended consequences for some of the people as a result of these popular initiatives.
Constitution adopted a document that was exceedingly thin on direct democratic provisions but instead provided for representative democracy. With the institution and proliferation of forms of direct democracy as a policy tool in the late twentieth century, scholars began to explore the consequences of direct democracy and whether or not referendums or initiatives actually harm minorities.
Instead, largely populated areas with well-educated citizens tend to adopt ballot measures that actually protect homosexuals. Donovan and Bowler concluded that both direct and representative democracies have comparable limitations in protecting specific minority groups.
The claim that referendums reflect the popular will of the majority or that they provide for direct democracy in the truest sense is open to question for several reasons.
First, as with most other elections, only a small and self-selected percentage of the voting public participates in referendum elections. Constitutional amendments that must be approved of through referendum may be placed on the ballot during special elections, not associated with either statewide or nationally elected office.
The skew in voter participation for these referendums is likely to be especially pronounced. Moreover many of these referendums may pertain to mundane matters, such as issuing bonds for economic development or pollution control, which are not of interest to many voters.
Second, large states, like California and Texas, may have too many referendums on an election ballot, which may cause voters to roll off, or not finish the ballot, actually reducing the proportion of voters who participate.
Indeed the midterm election ballot used in several California counties was over pages long. Fourth, voters may make policy based on a whim, not careful research, leading to ineffective or countereffective policies.
Finally, government accountability may be reduced if citizens — not their elected representatives — are responsible for making public policy.
Unlike the United States, referendums are more central to governance in many other democracies, with numerous states relying extensively on national referendums for policy making.
It does not have a nonbinding or advisory referendum provision. Although Sweden provides for both binding and nonbinding referendums, most of its late-twentieth-century referendums were advisory to the legislature.
Other countries use the referendum process to approve constitutional amendments France , vote on independence Puerto Rico , recall politicians from office Venezuela , determine public policy directly Brazil , or decide European Union membership United Kingdom.
Braunstein, Richard. Donovan, Todd, and Shaun Bowler. American Journal of Political Science 42 3 : Gamble, Barbara.
Putting Civil Rights to a Popular Vote. American Journal of Political Science 41 1 : LeDuc, Lawrence. Toronto: Broadview. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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A referendum is a provision permitting voters to accept or reject a public policy measure or policy question at a formal election. Its particulars vary from state to state: it may be binding or advisory, constitutional or legislative, and have local or statewide application; it may deal with amendments to state constitutions and city charters, statutes, and ordinances, or the financing of schools and public works projects through taxation or bonded indebtedness.
In some states, the process can be set in motion only by the state legislatures; in others, it can be activated by voter-generated petition.
Although some scholars trace the referendum's modern beginnings back to Switzerland or to colonial New England , others locate its specific origins in the Massachusetts state constitution of , which limited its application to the ratification of either new constitutions or amendments to existing ones.
During the s, Texas became the first state to permit the submission of proposed statutes, but the movement did not gain much momentum until the Populists and other agrarian radicals advocated it during the last decade of the century.
With the onset of the Progressive Era in the late s, the referendum, in common with the initiative, recall, primary elections, direct election of U.
Initiative and referendum together constituted the "direct legislation" segment of that movement, inspired by the growing belief that city councils and state legislatures—once considered the most representative of all branches of government—had become virtual tools of corrupt corporate and partisan interests.
They could no longer be relied upon to enact legislation on behalf of general welfare, nor could they be prevented from passing laws that blatantly betrayed the public's trust in favor of special interests.
One part of the putative solution— initiative —was designed to allow the general public to force popular measures upon legislature.
The second component— referendum —was crafted to permit voters to undo pernicious work by legislature, as well as to demonstrate widespread support for progressive measures.
Spearheaded by South Dakota in , some twenty states adopted the referendum over the next two decades. Despite its widespread adoption, the referendum has generally failed to justify the optimistic predictions of its Progressive Era proponents.
Referenda have been used by legislators to postpone or prevent the enactment of legislation; they have functioned as "buck-passing" safety valves for lawmakers caught between two powerful pressure groups or between the competing demands of special interests and the general welfare.
The precipitous decline in political participation in general has all but obviated the "democratic" nature of referenda, frequently reducing them to contests between two cohorts of special interest groups.
The increasing reliance upon television, the Internet , and other forms of mass communication have greatly increased the cost of referendum campaigns, to the obvious advantage of those with "deep pockets.
The escalating revolt against "big government" has greatly exacerbated what has always been the conventional wisdom regarding referenda: if you do not understand the issue or suspect that it will raise your taxes vote NO!
After thoroughly analyzing the operation of the referendum in California over the past century, political historian John M.
Allswang has pessimistically concluded that "somewhere along the way direct legislation moved well beyond its original intent, to the point where it has overwhelmed the governing processes it was designed to monitor, to become in effect a 'fourth branch' of state government.
Allswang, John M. The Initiative and Referendum in California, — Stanford, Calif. Munro, William B. The Initiative, Referendum, and Recall.
New York : Appleton, See also Initiative ; Progressive Movement. Buenker, John D. The right reserved to the people to approve or reject an act of the legislature, or the right of the people to approve or reject legislation that has been referred to them by the legislature.
The referendum power is created by state constitutions and is conferred on the citizens of a state or a local subdivision of the state.
Referendum provides the people with a means of expressing their opinion on proposed legislation before it becomes operative as a law. The power of referendum does not permit the people to invalidate a law that is already operative but suspends or annuls a law that has not yet gone into effect.
In this sense, referendum is similar to a governor's veto power. Also, by referendum the people may reinstate an act that the legislature has expressly repealed.
The referendum, along with the initiative , are the two forms of direct legislation adopted by many states during the direct democracy movement of the early twentieth century.
In Wyoming, an initiative must receive a majority of the total votes cast in a general election. For example, in Wyoming's general election the votes cast totaled ,, so an initiative would have had to receive at least l07, votes to be passed.
In Nevada, initiatives amending the constitution must receive a majority vote in two consecutive general elections.
There are two primary types of referenda: the legislative referendum, whereby the Legislature refers a measure to the voters for their approval, and the popular referendum, a measure that appears on the ballot as a result of a voter petition drive.
The popular referendum is similar to the initiative in that both are triggered by petitions, but there are important differences.
Legislatures are often required to refer certain measures to the ballot for voter approval. For instance, changes to the state constitution must be approved by voters before they can take effect.
Many state legislatures are also required by their state constitutions to refer bond measures and tax changes to the voters. Although this is not always the case, legislative referenda tend to be less controversial than citizen initiatives, are more often approved by voters than citizen initiatives, and often receive higher vote thresholds.
Legislative referenda may appear on the ballot in all 50 states. The popular referendum is a device which allows voters to approve or repeal an act of the Legislature.
If the Legislature passes a law that voters do not approve of, they may gather signatures to demand a popular vote on the law. Generally, there is a day period after the law is passed during which the petitioning must take place.
Once enough signatures are gathered and verified, the new law appears on the ballot for a popular vote. During the time between passage and the popular vote, the law may not take effect.
If voters approve of the law, it takes effect as scheduled. If voters reject the law, it is voided and does not take effect. Most of them are also initiative states.
A third form of referendum, the advisory referendum, is rarely used. In this form of the process, the Legislature, and in some states the governor, may place a question on the ballot to gauge voter opinion.
The results of the election on this question are not binding. An example of an advisory referendum is Question 5, which appeared on the Rhode Island ballot in Placed on the ballot by the governor, Question 5 asked voters if they favored changing the state constitution to make the three branches of government co-equal.
Although voters overwhelming voted yes, the question was non-binding and the governor and legislature were not obligated to act upon the measure.The intention behind holding direct democratic votes is often to reach a more legitimate political decision: referendums integrate voters in the. Party Politics: categorical variable, demonstrating the political party respondents voted for at the general elections of 14 March The variable initially. About the referendum. The spirit of Matt Qvortrup is Professor of Political Science at the University of Coventry and an expert on referendums. Um zu einer Entscheidung zu kommen, wurde ein Referendum abgehalten. of the media, freedom of assembly and political pluralism were considered as. Kazakhstan's Post-Soviet Political Process, April (see below), a popular referendum was organized to ratify President Nazarbaev's proposal. By lateit was evident that the government intended to Political Referendum down independent television and radio companies by depriving them of Open Up A Paypal Account broadcast licenses. Haushaltsplan, Abgabengesetze, Besoldungsordnungen, Verfassungsänderungen. Referendums around the world: Why do they occur? Possible solutions to conflict in multicultural societies. It was widely reported that these Pyramid Ancient Egypt had links to former prime minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin. Landeshaushalt, öffentliche Abgaben, Dienst- und Versorgungsbezüge. Feeling vulnerable and unwelcome: the impact of Brexit on EU nationals June 18th, 5. Wahl aller Kantonsregierungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Wahlsystems. Having reviewed the extensive research on Swiss direct democracyMister P Lehrte argue that three key lessons can be learned from the Swiss case. Foreign relations. Taagepera, R. The media law's provision against sowing inter-ethnic discord served as the pretext to May Planet Hollywood down other independent papers. Political decision-making processes are consensual, meaning that different Play Wolf 3d Games Online, namely the parties, interest groups, the cantons, and the people have their specific role Checking Account Deutsch this process. Schneider, F.